The Return of the Imaam Mehdi
The Truth About THE BAHA'I FAITH (Part 2)
"The early Bábís believed in reincarnation. Mulla Husayn in Fort Tabarsi was longing to be martyred and then return." (Shoghi Effendi, May 1954, Pilgrims Notes of Marguerite R. Sears).
Baha'is are taught that Siyyid Ali Muhammad Shirazi ("The Báb") was the "return" of the 12th Shi'ite Imaam: Muhammad al-Mehdi, who "disappeared" as a young boy (age 7 or 8) in 847 A.D. (260 A.H.). Shi'ite Muslims are told that the 12th Imaam is being "hidden" by God in some sort of underground cavern, and that he has been alive for over 1000 years, and that God is "hiding" him with the purpose of bringing him forth in the Last Day as a grown man, at the head of all Shi'ites. He will establish peace and justice throughout the Earth. The Prophet Isa (Jesus) will come back and be one of the followers of al-Mehdi (Mahdi), but after the death of al-Mehdi, Isa (Jesus) will command the Faithful Shi'ites.
After the "disappearance" of the child Muhammad al-Mehdi, in 847 A.D., a Shi'ite man came forward claiming to be the "Gate" of the "Hidden Imaam". He appointed his own son the second "Gate". The 2nd Gate appointed the 3rd Gate, and the 3rd Gate appointed the 4th Gate. The 4th Gate wrote that he was the last "Gate" until the Day of Resurrection. Since that time, the Shi'ite Muslims have been led by Ayatollahs ("Signs of God") and Mollahs ("Learned Ones"). The Ayatollahs wear black turbans, and the Mollahs where white turbans. Descendants (Siyyid) of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) wear Green turbans.
The four "Gates" of the "Hidden Imaam" are called the "Abvab" ("Gates"). Each one had the title of al-Báb ("The Gate"). These men were not Imaams but the "deputies" of the 12th Imaam, who communicated through them. They were the "channelers" of the Hidden Imaam whom God was "hiding" in some underground cavern, until the "Last Day". The titles of the Imaam Mehdi are:
*The Hidden Imaam
*The Riser (Qa'im)
*The Proof of God
*The Remnant of God (Baqiatullah)
Baha'is are taught that The Báb, who was killed by firing squad in Tabriz, Iran, in 1850, was the Imaam Mehdi (Mahdi), the Riser (Qa'im), the Proof of God, the Remembrance of God. However, Baha'is deny reincarnation. So, "how" is The Báb the "return" of the child who "disappeared" in 847 A.D.? They can't tell you. All they can say, is that in some "mystical" way that we can't understand, The Báb is the "return" of the Imaam Mehdi.
An examination of the writings of The Báb, and the writings of his followers (which the Universal House of Justice suppresses), makes it clear that The Báb considered himself the "servant" of the Imaam Mehdi, and the fifth "Gate" (channeler) of the Imaam Mehdi: not the Imaam Mehdi himself.
The Báb definitely put himself in the position as "Gate" (channeler) of the Hidden Imaam; not the Hidden Imaam himself, when he wrote:"O Remnant of God (Baqiatullah), I am wholly sacrificed to thee; I am content with the curses in thy way. , and have yearned for naught but martyrdom in the path of Thy love" (Ref: Qayyamul Asma, The Bab. Quoted from Traveller's Narrative, Page 3)
"I bear witness that He whose name is Ali-Qabl-i-Muhammad (The Báb) is the servant of the Baqiyyatu'-llah." (Ref: Dawn Breakers, page 144)
The term Baquiyyatu'llah ("Remnant of God") was one of the terms of the Hidden Imaam: the young boy Muhammad al-Mehdi who disappeared about 847 A.D. (260 A.H.). Shi'ites were told the God was "hiding" the lad, who would appear as a grown man in the last days, and lead Shi'ite armies to final victory. Quddus clearly identified himself as the "Remnant of God" in 1849. Baha'is are taught that The Báb was the "return" of the Imaam Mehdi, in some mystical way that cannot be explained. Nabil Zirandi, author of The Dawnbreakers wrote of the arrival of Quddus to the Shrine of Tabarsi, in 1849:'The first words that fell from the lips of Quddús after he had dismounted and leaned against the shrine were the following: "The Baqiyyatu'llah [The Remnant of God] will be best for you if ye are of those who believe." [Qur’an 11:85] By this utterance was fulfilled the prophecy of Muhammad as recorded in the following tradition: "And when the Mihdi is made manifest, He shall lean His back against the Ka'bih and shall address to the three hundred and thirteen followers who will have grouped around Him, these words: `The Baqiyyatu'llah will be best for you if ye are of those who believe.'" (Nabil Dawnbreakers p.352, also see p. 15)
According to Shi'ite Muslim prophecy, given by one of the Shi'ite Imaams (there were 12), the Riser/Proof of God/Hidden Imaam/Remnant of God will lean his back against the Ka'aba, and recite a Verse from the Qu'ran: "The Remnant of God will be best for you if ye are of those who believe." He would say this in front of 313 followers.
Now, the Ka'aba is in Mecca. However, the Arabic word "Ka'aba" means "Qube" and usually means the Holy Ka'aba in Mecca, but, in reality, can refer to any "cube" shapped building. The Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsi, in the province of Mazindaran, in northern Iran, was a "cube". Because most Shi'ite Muslims in Iran could never, ever, afford to go on pilgrimage to the Holy Ka'aba in Mecca, they went on a "Lesser Pilgrimage" to a Shrine (burial cube) of a Shi'ite Shaykh (holy man/elder). They would circle the "Qube" (Shrine) seven times, just like the Muslims do in Mecca. Sunni Muslims considered this blasphemy, since a man's body was in the Shi'ite Shrines. But the Shi'ites did not consider it wrong; especially since 99% of all Iranian Muslims in the 19th century could never afford to make the real Pilgrimage to Mecca.
Quddús leaned his back against the cube-shaped "shrine" of Shaykh Tabarsi, and uttered the "Verse" that only the Remnant of God was supposed to utter, in front of 313 followers of The Báb. After this was done, all the 313 men swore allegiance to Quddus as the return of the "Hidden Imaam". This is never told to the Baha'is, but it can be found as clear as day in The Dawnbreakers by Nabil Zarandi. Every Baha'i Center in the English-speaking world has a copy of it in their library.
The Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsi is near the village of Afra, not far from the Caspian Sea, in the northern most province of Iran. According to ancient Iranian lore, the Ark of Noah landed in the Mountains of Damavand, south of Afra, in the Alborz (Elburz) mountain range.
Quddús was claiming to be the Proof of God, the Riser, the Remnant of God: the return of the Imaam Mehdi, the young boy who "disappeared" in 847 A.D./260 A.H. He taught that the young boy died. He wasn't living in some cave under the ground like Shi'ites believed. He young boy died, but now he has "returned" with a new name, born of a new mother. Like The Báb, Quddús taught a form of reincarnation called "return". In each Dispensation, the true Believers "return" in new bodies, with new names, born of new mothers.
The 313 followers of The B&aacube;b were now followers of Quddús. They saw no contradiction, because, at that time, they viewed The Báb as the 5th "Gate" to the Hidden Imaam, not the Hidden Imaam himself. They turned the area around the Shrine into a fort, and they fought the troops of the Shah of Iran, but they lost. Quddús was killed with a blow of an iron ax by Said'i'Ulema: a Jew who converted Shi'ite Islaam, whom, it was rumored, was a Hermaphrodite (half-man/half-woman). According to another Shi'ite prophecy, the Imaam Mehdi would be killed by "iron" by a blow to the head, given by "a bearded Jewish woman" named Sai'da.
Quddús wrote a number of Tablets (letters). Copies of these are at the International Baha'i Archives in Haifa, and have been since the late 1960s. The Universal House of Justice has refused to translate and publish any of these Tablets by Quddús . Why? You cannot even "ask" that question! Baha'is who have just "asked" have had their membership in the Faith removed. But the answer to the reason "why?" is simple: because Quddús claimed to be the Remnant of God (Imaam Mehdi), and The Báb confirmed that, and this conflicts with current Baha'i teachings, so the Universal House of Justice wants to "hide" that. It is that simple.
After the Death of Baha'u'llah
Baha'u'llah died in 1892. In his writings, he made his sons 'Abdu'l-Baha and Mohammad Ali Effendi co-regents. 'Abdu'l-Baha was to represent the Baha'i Community to the Turks and all non-Baha'is, and Mohammad Ali Effendi was to be in charge of the Baha'is themselves and oversee doctrine and practice. There was immediate conflict between the brothers. This is when the narratives split.
According to current Baha'i teachings, 'Abdu'l-Baha was made the sole successor of his father. Jealous and greedy for power, Mohammad Ali Effendi opposed him, and, with lies, took all the family of Baha'u'llah with him in his Covenant-Breaking. So, 'Abdu'l-Baha had no choice but to excommunicate the entire family of Baha'u'llah (including the widows of Baha'u'llah).
According to the Aghsan (the family of Baha'u'llah), 'Abdu'l-Baha started to "change" the religion of Baha'u'llah, and he "changed" many of the holy laws. For example, Baha'u'llah allowed Baha'is to have two wives and one concubine (servant girl), but 'Abdu'l-Baha changed that to means Baha'is could have only one wife and no concubine. Also, the Aghsan were claiming that 'Abdu'l-Baha was telling the Westerners (wealthy Liberal Americans and British Baha'is) whatever he thought they wanted to hear, in order to get donations from them.
The Aghsan, who also called themselves the "Unitarians", also claim that 'Abdu'l-Baha was "two faced"; that he was a racist: speaking to them in one way, or appearing to be for Race Unity in front of wealthy British and American Baha'is. They said that 'Abdu'l-Baha loved to slap people who disagreed with him, and would make obscene jokes about their children.
The Aghsan claim that Baha'u'llah was not a Prophet nor a Messenger of God, but a Shi'ite Muslim, a Sufi Master who wanted the Beha'i Order to be a Sh'ite Sufi Order, pattered on the Sunni Sufi Order called the Naqshbandi (nahkhsh-bahn-dee) Order. Baha'u'llah joined that Order for two years, while he was in exile in Sulamaniyyih, Iraq, in 1854-56.
The Aghsan (family of Baha'u'llah) also claim that Shoghi Effendi was a homosexual, and created a new religion called the Baha'i Faith, but the Baha'u'llah was a Muslim, his religion was Islaam, his party was Twelver Shi'ism, and that he (Baha'u'llah) never claimed Prophethood. They also claim that The Bab was not a Prophet or Messenger, but simply the Fifth "Gate" of the Hidden Imaam: who appeared as Quddus.
Who was right? We can only know that answer if ___ALL__ the writings of The Bab, Quddus, and the early Babis and Baha'is are translated and published. The Universal House of Justice in Haifa has had copies of these writings since the early 1970s. Yet, they refuse to publish most of these writings. They will only authorize the publishing of carefully selected "Selections" from the writings of The Bab. Nothing from Quddus. Almost nothing from the early Babis and Baha'is. Sometimes, these manuscripts become available, but if a Baha'i translator should "translate" something not "approved" by the "House", then they are declared "Non-baha'is" and shunned by all other Baha'is. Many have asked "Why can't we publish our translations?" The House replies with Membership Removal, without explanation..
What does the "House" have to hide? Why are they refusing to publish these early Writings, and "removing the membership" of anyone who does so?
The Reign of Shoghi Effendi
There is no mention by 'Abdu'l-Baha (d. 1921 A.D.) that Shoghi Effendi would be his successor. No mention of it in any Tablet or talk by 'Abdul-Baha; except the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Baha: a document not unsealed until Shoghi Effendi himself unsealed it a number of months after the death of his grandfather. Of course, the "Unitarians" (i.e. the followers of the Younger Sons of Baha'u'llah) did not accept this Will and Testament. An American Baha'i woman named Ruth White, challenged the Will. She went to Haifa, and bought the printing plates of the Will and Testament, and sent them to two British handwriting experts she hired to examine them. They concluded that the Will and Testament was in two different "hands" and that the second section (appointing Shoghi Effendi as Guardian) was not in the "hand" of 'Abdu'l-Baha. The Research Department at the Baha'i World Centre in Haifa, Israel, has acknowledged this, but they conclude that the "second part" of the "Will" was probably written by an unknown scribe. One thing is not disputed: the part of the "Will and Testament" that appoints Shoghi Effendi as the Guardian of the Cause of God, was not written by the hand of 'Abdu'l-Baha; although the first part of the "Will and Testament" was written by him.
Shoghi Effendi (d. 1957) became Guardian of the Baha'i Faith in 1921, when 'Abdu'l-Baha died. By 1950 Shoghi Effendi excommunicated the entire family of 'Abdu'l-Baha, children included, except for himself, after they complained he was "changing" the doctrines and practices of the Faith. For example, forbidding the Baha'is to perform Salat (Friday prayers in Mosque). 'Abdu'l-Baha taught a person may be a "Baha'i-Muslim" or a "Baha'i-Christian" or even a "Baha'i-Freemason" ('Abdu'l-Baha in London, p.97) but Shoghi Effendi reversed that, saying that one could not a Muslim, nor a Christian, nor a Freemason and a Baha'i too. Shoghi Effendi translated many Tablets of Baha'u'llah, such as the Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book), but most scholars who have compared his translation to the original say that it is not a word-for-word translation put a "paraphrase", and some even claim that Shoghi Effendi was very "loose" in his translations.
Here is a partial list of the Baha'is that Shoghi Effendi excommunicated:
1. Ruhi Effendi Afnan: Grandson of Abdul Baha.
2. Zahra Khanum: Grand-daughter of Abdul Baha and wife of Ruhi Effendi Afnan.
3. Soraya Khanum: Grand-daughter of Abdul Baha and wife of Feyzi Effendi Afnan.
4. Foad Effendi Afnan: Grandson of Abdul Baha.
5. Mehr-Angiz: Grand-daughter of Abdul Baha and sister of Shoghi Effendi.
6. Feyzi Effendi Afnan; Grandson of Bahaullah.
7. Touba Khanum; Second daughter of Abdul Baha.
8. Rouha Khanum; Third daughter of Abdul Baha.
9. Mirza Jalal Shahid: Son of the King of the Martyrs and husband of Rouha Khanum.
10. Furighyyeh Khanum! Daughter of Bahaullah.
11. Aga Sayyed Ali Afnan: Husband of Furighyyeb Khanum.
Shoghi Effendi did often not announce any "reason" for these excommunications, but those who were excommunicated said that they were expelled from the Faith not because of their own misdeeds but because Shoghi Effendi was changing doctrines, laws, traditions, and many of them "questioned" the validity of the portion of the Will of 'Abdu'l-Baha that appointed Shoghi Effendi Guardian of the Faith. A few of them were also spreading "rumors" that Shoghi was meeting with male lovers during his sabbaticals to Switzerland and England, when he left for months at a time, leaving his wife in Haifa to run the Faith and to sign letters in his name making such letters "binding" upon the Baha'is. Mary Maxwell (Ruhiyyih Khanum) became the "de factor" Guardian during the long "sabbaticals" that Shoghi Effendi took almost yearly, without her.
Baha'i World State
'Abdu'l-Baha advanced the notion that an "International Tribunal" should be established to settle disputes between nations. This was long before the League of Nations (and later United Nations) was established. Shoghi Effendi went further, saying that a "World Executive" had to be established, in charge of an world police force, and he called this the "New World Order". Basically, a Baha'i World State.
Shoghi Effendi called for the establishment of a New World Order with a Baha'i "World Executive" in charge of all lethal power
The term "New World Order" cannot be found in the writings of The Báb, or Baha'u'llah, or 'Abdu'l-Baha. It "can" be found in the writings of the World Federalists. Shoghi Effendi was introduced to the writings of the World Federalists when a student (1916-1919) at what is now the American University of Beirut.
Baha'u'llah and 'Abdu'l-Baha did advocate the establishment of a "International Tribunal" to settle disputes between sovereign nations. But their writings have no concept of a Baha'i World State, presided over by a "World Executive". None of the writings of Baha'u'llah mention any "World Order of Baha'u'llah". The concepts of "World Order of Baha'u'llah" and "World Executive" with a "World Police Force" are creations of Shoghi Effendi.
Shoghi Ends Baha'i Prayer At Mosques
Under 'Abdu'l-Baha, Baha'is attended Masjid (Mosque) on Friday and performed Salat (prostrating prayers) as the Muslim did, along side of Muslims, praying exactly as the Muslims did. 'Abdu'l-Baha performed Salat every Friday afternoon of his life. When he became Guardian, Shoghi Effendi told the Baha'is not to do that anymore. Shoghi Effendi was working on the plans for the "House of the Guardian" at the Baha'i World Centre in Haifa, when he died of fever, age 60, in 1957, in London England.
Shoghi Goes to England to Buy Furniture
Why was Shoghi Effendi in England? Again, Shoghi Effendi went on "sabbaticals" periodically. He would not take his wife Mary. He left her behind. He would be gone, sometimes, for months. He would go to Switzerland or England. He would meet with Baha'is for a few days, and they would not see or hear from him again. What was he doing? After Shoghi's death, the Hands of the Cause asked his wife, Mary (Ruhiyyih Khanum) why Shoghi was in England. She told them: "He went there to buy furniture". Why he had to travel thousands of miles to buy furniture, was never explained. Perhaps he just really liked English furniture! Of course, in 1957, English furniture was sold in Haifa, and also in Jerusalem. In any case, that is the "official" reason why Shoghi Effendi went to England.
According to the other sons and daughters of Baha'u'llah, Shoghi Effendi was a homosexual, and that he had been "caught" at least three times having sex with men; which is one reason why he was sent away to college. Shoghi later excommunicated his personal secretaries, including Mirza Ahmad Sorab, who served as his personal secretary for many years, because they too were talking about his homosexual liaisons after he married Mary Maxwell (Ruhiyyih Khanum).
The Testimony of Michael Zargarov
The following was written by Michael Zargarov in the year 2013. He was good friend with a woman named Mildred Mottehedeh, who had been the best friend of Mary Maxwell (Ruhiyyih Khanum), the wife of Shoghi Effendi, and lived in Haifa, for many years. Michael wrote:"Mildred and I were very close. She ASKED me if I “struggled with being gay”. When I admitted that I did, she revealed to me that Ruhiyyih had intimated to her that Shoghi was homosexual himself, and hated himself because he “fell so short of what was expected of him as a member of Baha’u’llah’ s family”. Ruhiyyih told Mildred that their marriage had been arranged to “help” Shoghi “straighten himself out”. (Letter of Michael Zargarov, posted on The Baha'i Insider website, March 18, 2013)
The Testimony of Mirza Suhbi Fazullah Muhadi
The following is an except from a book written by a former Baha'i who grew up with Shoghi Effendi in Haifa, Israel, named Mirza Subhi Fazullah Muhadi (NOT to be confused with Subh-i-Azal, the half-brother of Baha'u'llah) who was at one time the "Persian Secretary" (handled all correspondence in Farsi) of 'Abdu'l-Baha, where he claims that he "caught" Shoghi Effendi have sexual relations with males several times. He wrote in his book Payam-i-Padar the following:“Shoghi Effendi was possessed of peculiar nature and habit which cannot be properly described; his manly disposition was inconsiderable; he was continually desirous of cultivating friendship, and associations, with robust men and youth!." (Payam i-Padar, p. 143)
Shoghi Effendi, Dr Ziya Baghdadi and Mirza Subhi Fazlullah Muhadi, a second cousin of Baha'u'llah, go to a party at night at Akka at which jokes were cracked. Subhi Fazlullah absented himself from the room on business. On return he found the couple in compromising circumstances “with Dr Ziya Baghdadi having committed an indecent act” with Shoghi (ibid. p.145)
Taken aback” Subhi said : “Doctor! What is this business you have been doing?” Shoghi Effendi turned the face toward me” and said: “If you are also a man, prove yourself a male!!" (Suhbi Fazlullah concludes) “I have heard such remarks from, and have witnessed such scenes of Shoghi Effendi on several occasions." (ibid. p.146)
According to Subhi Fazulullah, a childhood friend of Shoghi Effendi, and the "Persian Secretary" of 'Abdu'l-Baha, this is what he saw and heard. Only he and Shoghi Effendi know if it is true or not.
The Testimony of 'Abdu'l Hasayn Ayati (Awareh)
'Abdu'l Husayn-Ayati was a Persian man, living in Yazd, in Iran, when he was given a Baha'i book. He read it, and converted to the Baha'i Faith in the 1880s. He became a very popular Baha'i "Muballigh" (teacher/missionary). Most people in Iran in the 19th century could not read or write. So, whenever a "learned man" converted to the Baha'i Faith, he was usually made a "Muballigh" so that he could read Baha'i books and pamphlets to groups of illiterate Baha'is (and most people in Iran were illiterate). Since they could read and wirte, they also delivered sermons, accepted donations to be sent to Haifa, wrote letters to Haifa and read letters come from Haifa. These Muballigh became the ipso facto "Ulema" (clergy) of the early Baha'i Faith in Iran.
'Abdu'l Hasyn-Ayati travelled all over Iran, making many converts to the Faith, and teaching illiterate Baha'is. He was so popular and successful that 'Abdu'l-Baha appointed him as Ra'ilsul Muballagheen (Chief of Teaching-Missionaries) in all of Iran, and gave him the nickname "Awareh" (Farsi: "Wanderer"), and wrote several Tablets to him, which still exist as part of the Baha'i Holy Writings.
'Abdu'l Husayn-Ayati ("Awareh") was made the Chief Baha'i Missionary in all of Iran. That was the highest Baha'i position of anyone living in Iran. He was the de facto "Head" of the Baha'i Faith in Iran: a country with by far the most Baha'is (95% of all Baha'is at that time). Iran had no "National Spiritual Assembly" until long after Shoghi Effendi came to power.
In 1917 Awareh moves to Haifa to be near 'Abdu'l-Baha, and stays for 90 days. He's never met 'Abdu'l-Baha before. He knows him only through books, pamphlets, stories, and correspondance. After 90 days in Haifa, he leaves and goes to Egypt and publishes an Anti-Baha'i book in Arabic. Not long afterwards, he leaves the Baha'i Faith, and writes an anti-Bahai book titled Kashft'u'l Hiyal (Farsi: "Disclosure of Deception" or "Deception Exposed") in which he said regarding Shoghi Effendi:“it is not possible to categorize him as either male or female! Neither possessing feminine kindness and charm nor having mannish wisdom and sobriety! There are attachments in these kinds of people which is hard to find out. I am not aware if you have heard of that physicians lays down a man and by some medical treatment changes him to a female and vice versa. …
The guy who failed to get a diploma in Oxford as well as Beirut! The same Shoghi who his classmate asked him why don’t you pay attention to your studies and he replied:” what is studying all about? To find a piece of bread and mine is already prepared ”... one (witness) has seen Mr. Shoghi Effendi has entered a private shower together with the son of Mirza Baqir Shirazi at the morning call to prayer(Azan)..." (Kashf-al-Hiyal, Vol. II, 2nd impression, PP. 84-85 and P. 166; Vol., III 3rd impression, PP. 212-213)
Are all these eye-witnesses liars (Baha'is would say "YES"), or was Shoghi Effendi a closeted homosexual man, who wrote against homosexuality, but secretly practiced what he publicly preached against?
Shoghi Effendi condemned "homosexual love" in various letters, and these letters are "binding" upon Baha'is everywhere. His signed letters are considered infallible divine guidance by Baha'is. Baha'is who commit homosexual acts have their voting rights removed, and, it is understood, in the World Order of Baha'u'llah homosexuals will be "fined" for each "offense" by 9 Mithqals of gold, and the fine doubling with each offense.
Naturally, the Baha'is will claim these men were "bitter" against the Faith, or Shoghi Effendi, and invented lies against him. The fact that Shoghi Effendi and his wife never had children, means nothing, since many couples can't have children. They also never adopted, and never left "instructions" on who would succeed Shoghi as Guardian of the Faith when he died. The fact that Shoghi Effendi went on four month long "sabbaticals" alone, to Switzerland and London, and often did not take his wife, just means, he went to meditate and get away from his heavy responsibilities as Guardian of the Baha'i Faith. And if you believe all that, I have a bridge in Brooklyn I'd like to sell you!
Shoghi Publishes Racist Article by August Forel in 'Baha'i World' Magazine
August Forel was a famous Swiss psychiatrist who trained directly under Sigmund Freud. He was also one of the founders of the "Monist League": a society that spearheaded evolution, but they also promoted the concept the Nature and God was the same entity, and that Nature favors the strong over the weak. The Monists taught that "Negroes" were in fact a higher ape, and not quite human. Most the founders of the early Nazi Party (called the German Worker's Party) were also members of the Monist League. However, Forel hears of the Baha'i Faith, and eventually becomes a Baha'i in 1920. 'Abdu'l-Baha writes a Tablet to him calling him a "genius" and "lover of Truth". Yet, Forel retains membership in the Monist League. Forel is the author of numerous books where he states that the "Negro race" is "hopelessly inferior" to the "superior races". The Monists believed that Nature was God, and Nature favored the "higher races" over the lower races.
Most Monists were also Social-Darwinists, and believed that "might means right" and that the "Superior Races" had a "natural right" to dominate, subjugate, and even exterminate the "inferior races". The Social-Darwinists were also called "Racialists". In appears that Forel abandoned his Racialist views upon becoming a Baha'i in 1920, but he retained his "Scientific Racist" views that there were superior and inferior races. He simply no longer believed that the superior races had a "natural right" to dominate and exterminate "inferior" races.
It should be noted that in the 1920s just about ALL university professors were Scientific Racists. All of them, without exception, believed some races were "superior" to others. Only a small minority of university professors were "Racialists" (Social-Darwinists); believing that the superior races had a "natural right" to dominate, subjugate, exploit, and even exterminate "inferior" human stock. In the 1920s "Scientific Racism" was accepted as "fact" just as much as Evolution is accepted as "fact" today.
In 1928, August Forel, eight years a Baha'i, Forel is still a member and supporter of the hyper-racialist Monist League, writes an article and sends it to Shoghi Effendi, and Shoghi orders it published in The Baha'i World which was the official English-language periodical of the Baha'is at the time. No article was published without the approval of Shoghi Effendi. Many Baha'is told Forel that "war" was the result of "inequality of races". Forel wanted to refute that idea, so he wrote an article. In the article Forgel writes:"Moreover, one makes a pretext that there are differences in races; but if one excepts those races, altogether inferior, with a lighter cerebrum (according to Wedda about eight hundred or eight hundred and fifty grams instead of one thousand) it is a fundamental error. All Europeans, Chinese, Japanese, Hindus, Semites, Americans, and so forth, are equal as races. It is necessary, therefore, to seek for other real causes for the hatreds and the wars than the differences of languages and of race. But while some declare Him [God] personal, we Monists look upon Him as representing the Force (metaphysical) of the Universe, unknowable to human beings." (“The World Vision of a Savant” Baha’i World III, 1928-1930, p. 284)
From a book published by the Monist League, showing a Gorilla, Chimpanze, Orangutan, and "Neger" in a tree (c. 1920)
Forel was saying: "You assume that war is the result of superior races making war on inferior races, but this is not true, since the superior races (Europeans, Chinese, Japanese, Hindus, Semites, Americans) make war against each other all the time, and they all have basically the same brain size, but who has made war against the small-brained Vedda of Ceylon (Shri Lanka)? We must seek (look for) the real cause of hated and war other than what Baha'is have been telling me is the cause: race and language."
Baha'is told Forel, for years, that wars would CEASE if men only thought of all races as equals, and only if all men spoke Esperanto in addition to their own native language. Forel knew that their argument was naiive and false: since European "races" war with each other, yet their diplomats could speak each other's languages just fine. Forel also knew that the "superior races" made war with each other: such as the large brained Japanese against the equally large-brained Chinese, or one European nation against another. Nobody was making war against the small-brained Vedda (German: "Wedda') of Ceylon! Forel wrote his article to "refute" the common Baha'i mentality that "war" between nations was the result of one race thinking itself superior to another race, or the result of miscommunication in language. Forel knew both arguments were not true. Those were NOT the "reasons" nations make war against each other.
Shoghi has Forel's article titled "The World Vision of a Savant" (i.e. Genius). Forel said in the above paragraphs:
*Races with lighter cerebrums are "altogether inferior" and gives the example of the Vedda (German: "Wedda") of Ceylon who have smaller cerebrums.
*Hindus, Semites, Japanese, Chinese, and Americans (he means white Americans) are equal as races (have roughly the same size cerebrums), and yet they go to war together, so racial superiority is not the cause of war.
*"We Monists...." (Forel is still calling himself a Monist eight years after joining the Baha'i Faith).
After becoming a Baha'i in 1920, Forel was told by other Baha'is that the belief of racial superiority led to war, as well as differences of languages (thus the need for Esperanto). Forel is refuting this argument in his article. France and Germany went to war during World War One, and millions on both sides were killed. Their diplomats could speak each other's language fluently, so Esperanto would not have helped. Also, both the French and Germans had equal sized cerebrums, which, to Forel, meant equal intelligence. So, they did not go to war because one thought they were superior to the other, as Baha'is were constantly telling him.
Forel still considered himself a Monist, even while being a Baha’i. Do YOU know what the Monists taught? They taught that God was the intelligent "Force" behind Nature. Nature taught "survival of the fittest". The Monists taught that "Negroes" were closer to the ape than all other races and “inferior” to the “advanced races”. The Monist League called for the forced sterilization of the retarded, the mentally-unfit, and chronically poor, the deformed, and "inferior races". The Monists founded the "Neo-Malthusian League" for this purpose; to rid humanity of "the unfit". The American Margaret Sanger, the founder of Planned Parenthood, was both a Monist and a member of the Neo-Malthusian League. Forel was an avid reader, attending Monist League conventions, and knew very well what the Monist League advocated. Yet, even in 1928, eight years after becoming a Baha'i, he wrote "We Monists....".
Shoghi Effendi was trained at the Syrian Protestant College (American University of Beirut), and Oxford University (for one year). The philosophy of the Monists would have been discussed in his philosophy and science classes; because Monism was discussed when professors discussed evolution. Scientific racism (that some races have larger brains and are thus "superior" to "inferior" races) was accepted as scientific fact by all (100%) European and American colleges and universities in the time that Shoghi Effendi attended them. But "Racialism" was not a science but a philosophy which sought to justify exploitation, and even extermination, of the "inferior races" in the name of Social-Darwinism (i.e. survival of the fittest). Most white professors, who accepted Scientific Racism as fact (and all of them did), rejected the philosophy of Racialism/Social-Darwinism.
100% of Shoghi Effendi's professors would have accepted Scientific Racism (some races have larger cerebrums and are thus more intelligent than others).
Perhaps 1% or less of college professors (at the time Shoghi Effendi went to college) would have accepted Racialism; the philosophy that superior races may dominate, or even exterminate, inferior races. 99% of white college and university professors in his day would have rejected Racialism; as did Shoghi Effendi and August Forel.
*Scientific Racism: accepted by 100% of European college professors in the time Shoghi Effendi attended college. Taught that some races were greater in intelligence than other races; according to the size of the cerebellum. Asians and Europeans had largest cerebrums, but Africans, American Indians, Aboriginals, Melanesians, and the Vedda (German: "Wedda") of Ceylon had smaller cerebrums and thus were less intelligent. Scientific Racism was accepted as "fact" by the educated after World War I and before World War II, just as educated people today accept Evolution as "fact" and not just theory.
*Racialism: the philosophy, also called "Social-Darwinism", that "superior races" had the "natural right" to dominate, enslave, exploit, and even exterminate "inferior" races: since Nature favors the strong/intelligent species over the weaker/less-intelligent species. Just about all college professors "rejected" the Philosophy of Racialism.
Shoghi Effendi clearly rejected Racialism and condemned it (as did Forel), but they both accepted Scientific Racism, as did 99% of university educated people in their day (1917-1921), just like most educated people today accept Evolution not as "theory" but as proven fact.
There is NO WAY that Shoghi could NOT have known the Forel was a Monist, and what the Monists believed and advocated. Monist Philosophy was discussed, pro and con, in every American and British university; anytime evolution was discussed. Shoghi knew that August Forel was still a Monist, and he knew what the Monists believed in. Yet, he has Forel's article published in The Baha'i World.
Shoghi Effendi nowhere condemned the "Scientific Racism" of August Forel and the Monists. Shoghi condemned "Racialism" which was the philosophy that the superior races had the "right" to dominate, and even subdue and exterminate, the "inferior races". Shoghi was taught Scientific Racism at both his colleges, and, at the time (1917-1921) all British and American Universities accepted Scientific Racism as "scientific fact" not theory. "Scientific Racism" (accepted as a science) and "Racialism" (a philosophy also called "Social-Darwinism") were looked upon as two separation things completely.
Nine years after Forel's "racist" article appeared in The Baha'i World, Shoghi Effendi told his wife Mary and her mother May Maxwell:"Men are not born equal; that is a fundamental principle of the Cause." (Haifa Notes of Shoghi Effendi's Word, by Mary Maxwell, 1:37)
Baha'is today would "spin" that to mean that Shoghi Effendi "meant to say" that men are not born with "equal opportunities". But...that's not what he said. Shoghi Effendi clearly rejected Racialism (Social-Darwinism), but he clearly accepted the Scientific Racism of his day: as did all university educated people of his day.
Shoghi Expects Guardianship To Continue After His Death
A review of the letters by Shoghi Effendi, and letters signed by him, over the course of his Guardianship, reveal that he expected the Guardianship to be perpetual, and to last until the coming on the next Manifestation, 1000 literal solar years after Baha'u'llah (which was, again, his own creation). Shoghi was working on the building plans for "The House of the Guardian" up until the day of his death. The House of the Guardian is now called the International Teaching Centre.
Shoghi Effendi would frequently go on extended vacations without his wife, leaving her in charge of the Faith while he was absent. She frequently signed letters in his name, while he was away (for months at a time) in Switzerland or England. Mary Maxwell also knew the combination to Shoghi's wall-safe.
Shoghi Effendi died in London in 1957. When the Hands asked why Shoghi was in London, Mary told them "He went to buy some furniture". A strange reason to travel over a thousand miles; since, by 1957, Haifa, Tel Aviv, Jerusalem, and Beirut all had excellent furniture and antique shops. Some who were very close to Shoghi, including secretaries that he exccomunicated, such as Mirza Ahmad Sohrab, later claimed that he went to Switzerland or London to meet homosexual lovers. One such lover, according to rumor, was George Townsend (an early prominent Irish Baha'i), but that cannot be documented. These claims could only be substantiated by signed letters from the men involved; an unlikely event in the "day" when homosexuals were "closeted" and dare not write or speak about their sexual orientation. All we know, is that is what the Aghsan (blood relatives of Baha'u'llah) and his own secretaries he excommunicated, such as Ahmad Sohrad, claimed this. Where they "all" lying? Maybe. Maybe not.
Shoghi Order Sons of Baha'u'llah Dug-Up
The three youngest sons of Baha'u'llah, Mohammad Ali Effendi, Badi'u'llah, and Ziya'u'llah, all eventually died and were buried near their father at Bahji. Baha'u'llah was buried underneath his mansion at Bahji, near Akka, Palestine (now Israel). At the deaths of Mohammad Ali Effendi, Badi'u'llah, and Ziya'u'llah, they were buried near the mansion. Shoghi Effendi did not like this. So, before he himself died, he instructed one of his "Hands of the Cause" (he had 27 "Hands") named Leory Ioas, to dig up their bodies, and bury them in a pauper's grave some place else, because their bodies were "desecrating holy ground". Baha'is consider Bahji to be like what Mecca is for Muslims, and are instructed to face Bahji, from anywhere they are, when they pray. Shoghi Effendi said:“When Leroy was given this assignment, the Guardian said to him, ‘Everything you have done up to now, including your work on the Shrine of the Bab, is as silver, whereas removing the Covenant-breakers from Bahji, and securing the buildings and lands for the Faith, will be as gold.‘ (Leroy Ioas, p. 194)
Well, it took many years to have this done, because, of course, the families of Mohammad Ali Effendi and Badi'u'llah thought the idea was HORRIFIC! In Islaam, to dig up a grave was unthinkable, and the Aghsan (Family of Baha'u'llah) still considered their religion to be Islaam. They fought in the courts for many years. However, running out of money, the Aghsan had to literally "give up". The Baha'is had unlimited funds to fight this in court, money donated from a million Baha'is from around the world, and the Aghsan family, who used the surname of "Beha'i", literally could not sustain the court costs any long. Finally, in 1965, LeRoy Ioas succeeded, and the graves of Mohammad Ali Effendi, Badi'u'llah, and Ziya'u'llah were dug up, and their bodies reburied far away in a pauper's field.
Do you think their father Baha'u'llah would have wanted that?
Mary Maxwell's 'Little White Lie'
Upon Shoghi Effendi's death in 1957, Mary Maxwell, his wife, told the Baha'is of the world he was "gravely ill" and forbade anyone from entering his office (where he kept his writings, letters, and wall-safe) except herself. When the Hands of God (Baha'i apostles) finally gathered, they checked Effendi's wall-safe (opened for them by Mary Maxwell), and found no Will; a deep violation of Baha'i Holy Law. Baha'i apologists say that the wall-safe was "sealed" so Ruhiyyih (Mary) would not have taken anything out of the safe i.e. as if Mary was incapable of putting another seal on the safe in the weeks between Shoghi's death and the time the wall-safe was checked by the Hands By this time, Mary Maxwell had "signed" Shoghi Effendi's signature on many letters; since he was often in Switzerland and unavailable to act as Guardian. Mary Maxwell became "de facto" Guardian during Shoghi's many sabbaticals away from Haifa.
Baha'i apologists say that Rihiyyih Khanum (Mary Maxwell) was a very honest woman, but admit she "told a little white lie" to the Baha'is after the death of Shoghi Effendi, cabling them that he was "gravely ill" and did not inform them of the Guardian's death until after she had "cleaned" his office herself. Baha'is will tell you that Khnum "really didn't lie" but "told a well-intentioned fib" so that the Baha'is would be "prepared better" to later learn of his death. She did it out of "concern" for the feelings of the Believers.
The Reign of Mary Maxwell
Mary Maxwell was the beautiful daughter of two prominent wealthy American Baha'is. According to various sources, the widow of 'Abdu'l-Baha arranged the marriage between Mary Maxwell and Shoghi Effendi, in her attempt to "cure" Shoghi's homosexuality. They were married for many decades. It is no secret that Shoghi did not allow Mary to sleep in his bed. She had a separate bedroom. He did not take her on his Sabbaitcals to Switzerland; often lasting up to four months. When he went on trips to Europe, he would leave Mary at home. 'Abdu'l-Baha gave Mary Maxwell the name of Amatu'l-Baha Rihiyyih Khanum (Arabic: "Maiden of Glory Spiritual Lady"). After she married Shoghi Effendi, she went by the name Ruhiyyih Khanum. When Shoghi Effendi was away on Sabbaticals (which was often), Rihiyyih Khanum would reply to letters addressed to Shoghi, even signing his name to those replies (making them "binding" upon all Baha'is who were told the letters of the Guardian were infallible). She was named by Shoghi Effendi a "Hand of the Cause of God": which meant a Deputy to the Guardian. In 1951, Shoghi Effendi appointed her as "Liason of the Guardian to the International Baha'i Council". At the same time, Shoghi Effendi appointed another Hand of the Cause, Charles Mason Remey, as President of the International Baha'i Council: a body which never met, never functioned, and which the Hands of the Cause, under the direction of Ruhiyyih Khanum, declared "Defunct" in 1957 upon the death of Shoghi Effendi.
The International Baha'i Council was supposed to be the "Universal House of Justice in embryo" but it never met, never functioned, and was declared "Defunct" in 1957
Why would Shoghi Effendi create an institution like the IBC, that never met, never had a meeting, only to be declared "Defunct" by the Hands of the Cause (at the urging of Mary Maxwell) in 1957? Could it be that the IBC was supposed to fuction as the successor of Shoghi Effendi, until a Aghsan (blood descendant of Baha'u'llah) could be found and appointed as Guardian? We'll never know. It seems strange that Shoghi Effendi would form the IBC for no reason; only to have his wife dispense with it upon his death.
Under Baha'i law, Shoghi Effendi was supposed to leave a Will appointing the next Guardian. He had no children, but he was working on the building plans for "The House of the Guardian" at the Baha'i World Centre before he died. After he died, his wife, Mary Maxwell, told the Baha'is for two days that he was "gravely ill". After his burial, the Hands of the Cause (Baha'i apostles appointed by Shoghi Effendi) checked his wall-safe in Haifa, and found no Will. Only Shoghi Effendi, and Mary Maxwell, knew the combination to his safe. The 27 Hands of the Cause of God, including Mary Maxwell, who was one of them, met in Haifa to talk about what to do. 'Abdu'l-Baha said that the Faith would have "twenty-four Guardians" (Some Answered Questions, p.67), but Shoghi Effendi had no children (the sons and grandsons of Baha'u'llah claimed he was homosexual), and left this earth, apparently, without leaving a Will (a violation of Baha'i law not for the Guardian to leave a Will) because when the Hands of God checked his wall-safe, about three days after his death in 1957, they found no Will. They asked Mary Maxwell, Shoghi Effendi's wife and correspondence secretary, if Shoghi left a Will, and if not why, and she just shrugged her shoulders. Apparently, if one is believe Mary Maxwell, her and Shoghi never discussed him leaving a Will.
BA'DA: God Changes His Mind
http://images.freewebs.com/Images/save.gif Several weeks after the death of Shoghi Effendi, the Hands of the Cause (Baha'i apostles), including Mary Maxwell (Ruhiyyih Khanum), met in Haifa to discuss "What do we do now?". Maxwell addressed the Hands, and said that God had "changed his mind" (called "BA'DA" in Arabic) about the Guardianship, and that she and eight other Hands called "The Custodians" would rule the Faith until a nine-man Universal House of Justice could be elected. When some of the Hands began to object, Mary began to strike her fist on a desk screaming that if the Hands did not agree to her demands she would kill herself, or move to Tibet and enter a monastery (she may have not known that Tibetan Buddhism does not allow female monks). The Hands, distressed and not knowing what else to do, voted to establish "The Custodians". Two of the nine Custodians were Mary Maxwell and Charles Mason Remey, the President of the International Baha'i Council. The first thing Maxwell did, was to put up a vote to "abrogate"" the Guardianship and the IBC, to which Remey objected. The Hands voted in her favor, and both were "history". Remey would later write that Maxwell "ruled" the Custodians with an iron fist, and she acted like a dictator and "new Guardian" of the Faith. By 1961, Remey declared he was the Second Guardian, based upon his appointment as President of the International Baha'i Council, which the Hands "abrogated" without having the authority to do so i.e. since only the Guardian or the House could do that.
Mary Maxwell (Ruhiyyih Khanum) ruled the Baha'i Faith with an iron fist from the death of Shoghi Effendi, when she abrogated the International Baha'i Council, and established the "Custodians" with her as de facto "first among equals", until her death in 2008. Any Baha'i who worked at the Baha'i World Centre in Haifa, Israel, during her lifetime knows this. She was in charge; although, technically, her position as Hand of the Cause was inferior to that of the all-male Universal House of Justice. Did Baha'is ever ask her: "Did you and Shoghi Effendi ever discuss who would succeed him after his death?" After all, they had no children, and, according to the "Will and Testament" of 'Abdu'l-Baha, the Guardian was required to do two things:
*Appoint his successor in his lifetime.
*Leave a Will.
Shoghi Effendi did neither, if one is to believe Mary Maxwell. Yes, many Baha'is did write to her over the years, and some did ask her that question when she appeared before groups of Baha'is throughout the decades. Her reply was always the same. She would ignore the letters, and offer no reply. When Baha'is asked in her presence, she would throw up her hands in a defensive movement, and remain silent, and "shun" the Baha'i who asked her the question.
Orthodox Baha'is believe that Shoghi Effendi DID in fact appoint his successor, Charles Mason Remey, when Shoghi appointed Remey as President of the International Baha'i Council; a body which never functioned, never met, and was declared "defunct" by the Hands, at the urging of Mary Maxwell, at their First Convocation of the Hands, a few months after the death of Shoghi Effendi in 1957. If we are to believe Mary Maxwell (Ruhiyyih Khanum), her and Shoghi Effendi NEVER DISCUSSED who would succeed him after his death, during their many decades of marriage, and her acting as his chief secretary.
Do you believe that Shoghi Effendi "never discussed" with his wife (Mary Maxwell) who would succeed him after his death? They had no children. They adopted no children. Do you really believe he NEVER discussed who would succeed him with his wife?
Why did Shoghi Effendi establish the International Baha'i Council in 1954, only to have Mary Maxwell (Ruhiyyih Khanum) declare that body "defunct" in 1957?
The Claims of Charles Mason Remey
In 1961, Charles Mason Remey arose and declared that he was the adopted son of 'Abdu'l-Baha, and also the President of the Baha'i International Council, created in 1954. Shoghi wrote that the President of the International Baha'i Council would be the Guardian of the Faith. Mary Maxwell, who was ruling the Faith by this time, opposed Remey, and declared Remey a "Covenant-Breaker"; something only the Guardian or House of Justice could do. Yet, no House of Justice existed yet. And Mary Maxwell was a Hand of the Cause, not the Guardian of the Faith although she acted like she was Guardian. The Hands sided with Maxwell and against Remey. The French National Spiritual Assembly sided with Remey, along with several thousand Baha'is around the world. However, Mary Maxwell owned the mailist lists, and send out letters and cables telling the Baha'is to "shun" Remey and all those that followed him. She had the National Spiritual Assembly of France locked out of their own offices. Remey founded the "Orthodox Baha'i Faith" which has about 3,000 members worldwide. The Baha'i Faith now claims that Shoghi Effendi was the one and only Guardian of the Faith, and the "House of the Guardian" at the Baha'i World Center in Haifa, which Shoghi was working on before his death, is now called "The International Teaching Centre".
Guardian of the Orthodox Baha'i Faith
Baha'i apologists today present Mason Remey as a power-hungry megalomaniac, and Ruhiyyih Khanum (Mary Maxwell) is painted as a heroin who "saved the Faith" from schism.
Why did Shoghi Effendi appoint Mason Remey as "President" of the International Baha'i Council? Remey was an architect and an excellent Hand of the Cause, who converted many people to the Faith. Remey was married for less than a year as a young man, but his wife committed suicide. They had no children. He never remarried. After Remey was declared a "Covenant Breaker" by the Custodians (i.e. Mary Maxwell), he retired to Florence, Italy, to spend out the rest of days and to run the Orthodox Baha'i Faith via correspondence. He hired an Italian-American "male nurse" to care for him that he legally adopted as his son, named Joseph "Pepe" Remey. Pepe Remey also never married and his memoirs of Mason Remey are filled with homoerotic tributes.
Charles Mason Remey with his "adoped son" Joseph Pepe Remey (Florence, Italy, circa 1964)
Baha'is who even say "hello" to an Orthodox Baha'i may be declare "Covenant-Breakers" (i.e. Orthodox Baha'is) and shunned for life by all other Baha'is. Baha'i leaders in the U.S. have "sued" the Orthodox Baha'i Faith over the use of the word "Baha'i" and lost each one of their lawsuits.
Some believe that Mary Maxwell "terminated" the International Baha'i Council, established by Shoghi Effendi in 1952, when Effendi died in in 1957, because she was only secretary of that Council, while Charles Mason Remey was President of the Council. If the International Baha'i Council took power, Mary Maxwell would be "under" the authority of Charles Mason Remey, a position she could not see herself tolerating. Why did Shoghi Effendi create the IBC only to have it "terminated" on his death? It is obvious to some, that he wanted the IBC to succeed him, perhaps acting as a regency until an Aghsan (blood descendant of Baha'u'llah) arose to fulfill the role of Guardian. Perhaps Effendi wanted Remey as Guardian. More likely, he wanted the IBC, presided over by Remey, to act as "regent" until one of the Aghsan (blood descendants of Baha'u'llah, a descendant of one of the "Unitarians", would arise, renounce the Unitarians, join the Faith, prove to be faithful, and be appointed as Guardian by the IBC acting as regent. But, we will never know, because either Shoghi Effendi failed to leave a Will, or Mary Maxwell got rid of the Will in the days after his death, when she forbade anyone from going into his office but her.
left: Mary Maxwel (Ruhiyyih Khanum)l right: Charles Mason Remey
Before the "Conclave" of the Hands of God (Baha'i apostles) in 1957, who met in Haifa, with Mary Maxwell (Ruhiyyih Khanum) pounding her fist on a desk, threatening "suicide or Tibet" if the 27 Hands didn't vote her way, before that, every Baha'i in the world believed that the Guardianship was perpetual, with an uninterrupted line of Guardians of the Cause of God, and this would continue for a thousand years, until the next Manifestation arrived, because that is what they were taught. But, there was no Will, and Mary said to the Hands: "God changed His mind".
The Reign of the Universal House of Justice
A nine-man "Universal House of Justice" was elected in 1963, to govern the Faith, but, according to Mason Remey, when the "House" issued directives that Mary Maxwell disagreed with, she would tell the House: "You haven't deliberated long enough on this issue, go back and deliberate again until you get it right." All decisions of the "House" (nine-man council) had be approved by her before it was sent out to the Baha'i world., according to Remey. She died in 2001.
First elected Universal House of Justice (1963). Charles Wolcott is on the far left in this photograph.
According to Jamshid Rohani, the Muhaddas (Seer), based upon his communications in the Third Heaven, Baha'u'llah was not a Messenger of God, but rather a "Dervish" (Muslim holy man) and a "Murad" (Head of a Sufi Holy Order). According to Jamshid, Baha'u'llah desired to start a Sufi (soo-fee) Order, based upon the Naqshbandi (Nawgk-shhhh-bawn-dee) Order. Baha'u'llah lived in a Naqshbandi commune for two years in Kurdistan, and wore the Dervish crown of the Naqshbandi Order. Baha'u'llah wanted to be the founder of a new Sufi (soo-fee) Order called the "Beha'i Order" which would be the Shi'ite version of the Sunni Naqshbandi Order. To non-baha'is, Baha'u'llah went by the name of Baha'u'Deen, which is also the name of the founder of the Naqshbandi Order. The Sufis (soo-fees) are Muslim mystics who interpret many of the laws and ordinances and doctrines of the Qu'ran "metaphorically" instead of literally like most Muslims do.
Baha'u'llah believed that Muhammad (pbuh) was the Last and Final Prophet, and evidence of that can be read in the following Tablets:
“Blessings and salutations be on the Holy Prophet of Islam (pbuh) – the leader of the universe, the nourisher of the nations, the one by whom Messengership and Prophethood was terminated and upon his progeny and his companions; a perpetual and never ending blessing and salutation.”
(Ref: Ishraqaat, page 293)
"I beseech Thee ... by Him Whom Thou hast ordained to be the Seal of the Prophets and of Thy Messengers."
(Ref: Bahá'u'lláh, Prayers 29)
At yet another place, Bahaullah writes,
“Once I was walking on the land of ‘Ta’ [Tehran] in Iran when suddenly, from every direction, on paying attention, the wailings of the prophets of the cities and the towns of that region could be heard and they were saying – O Allah, the last Apostle (pbuh), the leader of all Apostles of Allah, may our souls be sacrificed for him! We have been raised to remember You and extol You. But the ignorant sit upon us and are busy in swearing and cursing. O Allah! Deliver us from this.”
(Ref: Ishraqaat, page 246)
Mirza Hussain Ali Bahaullah writes,
“This is because Allah after having terminated the position of Prophethood upon His beloved and His chosen one, and His choicest from His creatures just as He has revealed in the glorious Quran; but (Holy Prophet (pbuh) is the messenger of Allah and the last of the prophets, has promised the eyes of His servants of His meetings on the Day of Qiyamat.”
(Ref: Asare Qalame’ Aala, volume 3, page 49)
Mirza Hussain Ali, Bahaullah, writes:
“Blessings and salutations be upon the Holy Prophet (pbuh), the leader of the universe, the nourisher of the nations, one by whom was terminated Messengership and Prophethood, and also upon his progeny and his companions.”
(Ref: Badie, page 293)
Baha'u'llah never called his religion "the Baha'i Faith". The phrases "The Cause of God" and "Crimson Ark" were common nicknames for ISLAAM in Persia during the time Baha'u'llah lived. He never called himself a "Prophet" nor a "Messenger". Never once in his writings. He clearly wrote that Muhammad was the final Messenger and Prophet of God on this planet. Baha'u'llah was a Shi'ite Muslim. He wanted the Baha'is to be an Mystical Order (Tawwasuf="Path") of Shi'ite Muslims: similar to the "Path" of the Naqshbandi Sunni Muslims. Shoghi Effendi "changed" Baha'u'llah from a Sufi Master into a Messenger of God, and the Beha'i Sufi Order into the Baha'i Religion.
Baha'u'llah did not consider himself to be a Razool (Messenger) nor a Nabi (Prophet) but a Muslim "Wali" (Arabic: "Saint"). He believed, as do the Naqshbandi Sufis, that when a Muslim achieved Fana-i-llah (Arabic: "annihilation in God") by travelling to the 7th Mystical Valley of the Soul, then the "ego" ("satan" within) is annihilated, and all that is left is the Ruh (Spirit) which is Allah. The Sufis did not see "Allah" as a Being "out there" somewhere, but "in here" (dwelling in the heart--meaning the Ruh in all men and women). Baha'u'llah believed he had reached this "Exalted Station" called Sadratu'l-Mantaha (Arabic: "The Uttermost Lote Tree") while he lived with the Naqshbandi Sufis (soo-fees) for two years in Sulimaniyyah, in Kurdistan, in the mid 1850s.
Most Writings of Baha'u'llah Still Untranslated and Unpublished
About 90% percent of the writings of The Báb are still untranslated and unpublished, and about 60% of the writings of Baha'u'llah are still untranslated and unpublished. Baha'i scholars (who know English, Arabic, and Farsi) have made some translations, and, in response, they have been declared "Covenant-Breakers" or simply had their names removed from the membership rolls. Why? Because they translated texts that the Universal House of Justice does not want Baha'is to read, because these texts teach the exact opposite of what the Baha'i Faith teaches today.
The "House" in Haifa excommunicates (i.e. removes from the membership records) any Baha'i scholar who "dares" publish a translation from the writings of The Báb or Baha'u'llah that they have not approved of (and they approve of very very few). The House has instructed Baha'is in Iran who leave there and go to a foreign country to "turn over" any old Farsi (Persian) or Arabic Baha'i books or Holy Tablets they may have, to the Baha'i World Centre, without making copies of them. After these items get to Haifa, they seem to disappear down a bottomless black hole, never again to see the light of day. But, The House is not always obeyed, and "smuggled" items have gotten to independent Baha'i translators; some of them already excommunicated for "publishing" unauthorized translations. Vast quantities of the writings of The Báb, Baha'u'llah, 'Abdu'l-Baha, and the early Persian Baha'i believers, have yet to be translated or published, although the House has had the talent and means to do since the early 1970s. The House apparently want to "wait" until the discrepancies (contradictions between the unpublished Tablets and current Baha'i teachings) can be "explained". That wait may be a long, long time.
Baha'u'llah Teaches Reincarnation
In his Tablet Athar-i Qalam-i A'la, Baha'u'llah writes that he is the reincarnation of Abel, who was killed by Cain:"This is a book from the Wronged One who is referred to in the Kingdom of Existence as Baha; and in the Most High majesty as the Most Exalted; and in the Sky of Concealment using all of God’s most beautiful Names; and in the Land of Creation as Husayn, but the majority of the people are under a great veil and delusion. Things happened to him in every era that only God the Greatest Exalted King can enumerate. Once he was afflicted at the hands of Cain and was killed in God’s path and ascended to Him oppressedly and this is what happened in the past and God was witness to this and well aware of it." (2:91)
Baha'u'llah referred to himself as "The Wronged One" hundreds of times in his Tablets. The above translation was published, by accident, by the Canadian Association of Baha'i Studies in 2002.
Perhaps this is why the Universal House of Justice refuses to allow the translation of 60% of the Holy Tablets of Baha'u'llah: because they contain teachings contrary to the "Baha'i Teachings" outlined by Shoghi Effendi. That would create "problems". Baha'is would begin to ask "questions" and expect answers. The Universal House of Justice have no "answers" to give them other than the Truth (i.e. Shoghi Effendi deliberately changed and distorted the station and religion of his great-grandfather).
Why did Shoghi Effendi want to change and distort the religion of his great-grandfather? Because:
*He despised Islaam, and wanted to create a new independent World Religion.
*He hated many features of Islaam, such as Salat (Friday prayers) that he was forced to do as a child (and as 'Abdu'l-Baha did every Friday at a Mosque) so he got rid of it.
*He was a convert to World Federalism while a student at the American University of Beirut (then called the American College of Syria), and wanted to create a religion based upon World Federalism.
Baha'u'llah created a Tawwasuf (spiritual path or order) meant to make the Muslim a "Mystical Traveler" from one Valley (spiritual station) to higher Valleys (spiritual stations), for the ultimate purpose of Fana'u'llah (Dying in God): so that the Mystical Traveler would become "one" with ALLAH after death. The term "Sufi" (soo-fee) comes from "Tawwasufee" (one who follows a mystical path in order to reach the highest spiritual plane/valley and thus Die in God).
'Abdu'l-Baha created a set of 11 talking points that became known as "The Baha'i Principles". He found that preaching these Principles to Western Liberals, would cause many of those Western Liberals to become Baha'is, and donate money to the Faith. He controlled all donations to the Faith. 'Abdu'l-Baha was a Muslim. He attended a Muslim Masjid (Mosque) every Friday. He was buried according to Muslim burial rites.
Shoghi Effendi was a Monist, like August Forel. God was the Cosmos. The Afterlife, if it existed at all, but irrelevant. Shoghi Effendi was a World Federalist. He saw the opportunity to "change" the Baha'i Order (a Sufi Order of Shi'ite Muslims based upon the Naqshbandi Order of Sunni Muslims), into a "New World Religion" that would promote the cause of World Federalism and do away with the Salat (prostrating prayers) and other "Islamic" practices that Shoghi Effendi did not fancy.
Shoghi Effendi was NOT a religious man at all! He hated the prostrating prayers that Muslims did. He hated most trappings of religion. He was essentially a Monist, like August Forel. God was Nature. The Afterlife was irrelevant. What mattered was the Here-and-Now. He hated the Tawwasuf (spiritual path) of his grand-father Baha'u'llah. But he believed he would "Use the Baha'is" to further the cause of World Federalism. That is why he deliberately distorted or mistranslated some of the "key" Verses in the Kitab-i-Aqdas and other Tablets.
Shoghi Effendi was successful in his endeavor. Baha'is today know little or noting of the Tawwasuf, pay little or no attention to it, but spend all of their time discussing "The Principles" that have to do with World Federalism which Shoghi renamed "The World Order of Baha'u'llah".
Simple as that.
Kalimat Press Banned
There was an independent Baha'i publishing company in Los Angeles named Kalimat Press, that published very scholarly Baha'i books every year, for decades. However, in the late 1990s they published the book Black Pearls: Black Servants in the House of The Bab and Baha'u'llah. The book revealed that both The Báb (the Forerunner of Baha'u'llah) and Baha'u'llah owned black "servants" (really: "slaves"). The book also revealed that many early Iranian Baha'is (the wealthy ones) owned, bought, and sold black slaves. In 1873 Baha'u'llah forbade Baha'is from engaging in the "slave trade". But owning black slaves, and engaging in the "slave trade" were two different things. One can "use drugs" without being a "drug dealer". One can own black slaves, without being in the "slave trade". The book Black Pearls revealed that Iranian Baha'i continued to own black slaves into the 1890s, when, thanks to the British and the French, black slavery in Egypt and Iran ceased. Black slavery continued in Saudi Arabia until 1962, when the Saudis were "forced" to end black slavery by the U.S. government. The publication of Black Pearls, and other books by Kalimat Press, upset the Universal House of Justice (the council of nine men--males only--who govern the Baha'i Faith worldwide). The National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States then officially "banned" Kalimat Press from all Baha'i bookstores and the Baha'i Distribution Service (BDS); effectively putting Kalimat Press out of business. The long history of Baha'is owning, buying, and selling black slaves is another fact of history that the Universal House of Justice does not want the Baha'is or the Public-at-Large to know about. Kalimat Press continues to publish one book a year, but their books are still banned from all Baha'i bookstores and the BDS. Black Pearls calls the black slaves "servants" but the book is clear that these "servants" were bought, sold, and could not leave their Baha'i masters without the permission of their Baha'i masters.
Both the Báb and Baha'u'llah owned black slaves. Baha'is were involved in the black African slave trade before 1873. Baha'is continued to own black slaves until the late 1890s, when the British and French finally pressured Egypt, Iran, and the Ottoman Empire (the Turks) to end black African slavery. Black slavery continued to flourish in Saudi Arabia (where there no Baha'is) until 1962, when the U.S. Government told the Saudis that American companies could not buy oil from them unless they ended black slavery. They did.
House Member: 'We Can't Figure Them Out!'"
A Baha'i acquaintance of mine told me long ago, then he once had dinner with a Member of the Universal House of Justice (the nine-member elected all-male governing body). He asked the Member of the House when the "unpublished writings" were going to be published, and the Member said: "I don't know...maybe never!" The Baha'i told me he was "shocked" by this response, and asked why. He said the Member replied: "There's a lot of strange things in the Writings, we can't figure them out, really weird stuff, so, best not to publish all that until we can figure it all out!" and then the Member quickly changed the subject. That House Member was Charles Wolcott, who was first elected to the Universal House of Justice in 1963. Charles Wolcott was a famous Hollywood music composer during the 1940s and 1950s. He became a Member of the Universal House of Justice in 1963, and remained a Member of the House until his death. This conversation took place in the late 1970s. The House still hasn't "figured it all out" yet.
The House (UHJ) is in a dilemma. If they announce "Shoghi Effendi was a liar, he mistranslated holy texts, was an active homosexual man who condemned homosexuality in his letters, and invented and changed the doctrines of Baha'u'llah" then 95 per cent of the Baha'is would leave the Faith, and the entire structure would collapse. The Members of the House of Justice are very committed to the idea that the World Order of Baha'u'llah/New World Order is "mankind's only hope" for peace and survival. They are between a "rock" and a "hard place". If they tell the Baha'i World what they know, it all falls apart. But, if they remain silent, suppress the unpublished Writings, they'll still be "on schedule" to Save the World.
They really think they are saving the world, and that by covering up the facts they will accomplish this the goal of World Peace and Save Humanity from Nuclear Holocaust!
o The 12th Imaam of Shi'ite Islaam disappears in 847 A.D.; leaving the Shi'ite Muslims without spiritual guidance.
o After the Imaam Mehdi disappears, four "gates" claimed to channel the Hidden Imaam (Remnant of God); each one is called "The Gate".
o Two Shi'ite "Seers" arise (Shaykh Ahmad and Siyyid Kazim) and say that the Hidden Imaam will reveal himself 1000 lunar years from the year he disappeared (brings it to 1844 A.D.)
o The Báb (Siyyid Ali Muhammad Shirazi) claimed to be the fifth "Gate" to the Remnant of God, but NOT the Hidden Imaam (al-Mehdi) himself.
o Quddús (one of the 18 "Letters of the Living") realizes he is the Hidden Imaam, in 1844 A.D., and declared he was "the Remnant of God" at Fort Tabarsi in 1850, where he was killed along with about 300 others, in apparent fulfillment of Shi'ite Muslim prophecy.
o The Quddúsí (a small sect in Iran) believe in reincarnation, so Quddús will one day "return" and fulfill the Shi'ite Muslim expectations of the advent of al-Mehdi of filling the entire Earth with peace and justice.
o The Báb appointed the brother of Baha'u'llah, Mirza Yahya Soob-e-Azal, as his successor.
o Baha'u'llah never once claimed to be a Razool nor a Nabi, but a "Wali" (Saint) and "Dawr-woosh" (Dervish) and attempted to be the founder of a Beha'i Sufi Order that was modeled on the Naqshbandi Sufi Order.
o Both The Báb and Baha'u'llah called their religion "Islaam" and taught that Muhammad (pbuh) was the Last and Final Razool (Messenger) and Nabi (Prophet) on this planet.
o The Naqshbandi Sufis teach that Allah is in the heart, and is the Ruh (spirit) of each man and woman, and the ego/self is the Satan in each man and woman, and if a mystic traveler reaches the 7th Spiritual Valley, the "ego" within is annihilated, and nothing is left but the Ruh (Spirit) which is God, and should that Perfect Man says "I am God" that is the truth. This is the same doctrine in Hinduism that identifies that Brahman (God) with the atman (soul/spirit).
o Baha'u'llah appoints his two eldest sons as co-heirs.
o Muhammad Ali Effendi, Baha'u'llah second son, accuses 'Abdu'l-Baha of changing doctrine to suit his own whims, and 'Abdu'l- Baha responds by taking legal control of all Baha'i properties and the mailing lists of Baha'is outside of Palestine, and excommunicating the other sons of Baha'u'llah along with their wives and children.
o 'Abdu'l-Baha presents Baha'u'llah as a "Manifestation of God"; which, in Shaykhi terms ('Abdu'l-Baha was taught by former Shaykhis) could mean a Messenger, or a Prophet, or a "Wali" (Muslim Saint).
o 'Abdu'l-Baha called black Africans an "inferior race", praised the Swiss racist philosopher August Forel, a co-founder of the hyper-racist Monist League, and called black Africans "savages" with "no superiority to animals", but when he is around wealthy British and American Baha'is he usually preached peace, tolerance, and race unity.
o 'Abdu'l-Baha has a habit of slapping people who disagreed with him, and he made obscene jokes about his enemies, like the sons of one enemy named Siyyid Mihdi (a follower of Muhammad Ali Effendi), whom, he said, sucked the penises of male goats, mistaking their semen for milk.
o Baha'u'llah made shunning HARAM (Arabic: "absolutely forbidden") for Baha'is, but 'Abdu'l-Baha declared that the other sons of Baha'u'llah (the Aghsan) to be NAW-KAW-ZEEN (Arabic: "violators") and, along with their wives and children, told the Baha'is to shun them, not even speak to them or acknowledge their existence in any way, and Baha'is who "violate" this were also shunned for life.
o The descendants of the Aghsan are numerous, and live in Israel, Palestine, Europe, Australia, and the Americas, and often take the surname of "Behai" and claim that Baha'u'llah was not a Messenger or Prophet but a "Dervish" (Muslim saint/holy man) who wounded an Islamic Mystical Order, not a new religion.
o The Báb, Baha'u'llah, and 'Abdu'l-Baha, are known as "The Central Figures" of the Baha'i Faith.
o Shoghi Effendi becomes Guardian on the death on 'Abdu'l-Baha, and makes further "changes" such as forbidding Baha'is from practicing Salat on Fridays as Muslims do, as they did under Baha'u'llah and 'Abdu'l-Baha, and excommunicates the all the descendants of 'Abdu'l-Baha, except for himself, because they criticize his changes in Baha'i doctrine and practice.
o According to the Secretaries of Shoghi Effendi, such as Mirza Ahmad Sohrab, and also according to the younger sons of Baha'u'llah (Mohammed Ali Effendi, Badi'u'llah, and Ziya'u'llah), Shoghi Effendi was a homosexual, was caught several times having sex with men, which is why 'Abdu'l-Baha sent him away to college, and was a "munfikun" (hypocrite) because he condemned homosexuality in his letters but privately practiced it. The Baha'is who followed Mohammed Ali Effendi, the second son of Baha'u'llah became known as "Unitarians" and called themselves "Beha'i" instead of "Baha'i". They consider their religion Islam, and Baha''llah to have been a "Perfect Man" (Sufi Saint) and not a Messenger or Prophet.
o Ruth White donates money to 'Abdu'l-Baha, only to discover from the bank in Haifa the funds were intercepted by Shoghi Effendi, and after Shoghi Effendi is declared "Guardian" in the Will of 'Abdu'l-Baha, Ruth White takes a copy of the Will of 'Abdu'l-Baha (from a printing plate) and sends it to two British handwriting experts, who declare that there are two different handwritings on the Will, and the portions that appoint Shoghi Effendi are "in a different hand" from the other portions; White forms the "Free Baha'is" who reject the notion of Guardianship completely.
o Shoghi Effendi begins to present The Báb and Baha'u'llah as the Founders of new religions, that The Báb was the Imaam Mehdi and Baha'u'llah was "Christ" returned (in some metaphorical sense never quite explained well) but both The Báb and Baha'u'llah wrote in their books that their religion was "Islaam" and that Muhammad (pbuh) was the Finality of Messengership and Prophethood.
o Perhaps due to Mary Maxwell's pressuring him, Shoghi Effendi allows women to serve on National and Local Spiritual Assemblies, contradicting 'Abdu'l-Baha'is previous directives (forbidding women to serve on the Chicago "House of Spirituality"), but he still bans women from serving on the Universal House of Justice. (maybe with his wife Mary Maxwell in mind?)
o Shoghi Effendi excommunicates all the descendants of 'Abdu'l-Baha, except himself, because they complain he is changing long-standing Baha'i doctrine and practices, and his "translations" of the works of Baha'u'llah are considered "loose" and in some cases deceitful (a position shared by ex-Baha'i translators).
o In 1954, Shoghi Effendi establishes the nine-member International Baha'i Council, with Mary Maxwell as secretary and Charles Mason Remey as President; calling it the "Universal House of Justice in embryo" (is he now allowing women members of "The House"?). Mary Maxwell terminates the IBC on the death of her husband in 1957 by telling the Hands of the Cause (Baha'i apostles) to vote her way or she'll commit suicide or become a monk in Tibet.
o 'Abdu'l-Baha said there would be 24 Guardians of the Baha'i Faith, and Shoghi Effendi works on the design for "The House of Guardianship" up to his death in 1957; yet he had no children and all other descendants of Baha'u'llah were excommunicated by 'Abdu'l-Baha or himself.
o Shoghi Effendi publishes a racist article by August Forel, a Monist and a Baha'i since 1920, in The Baha'i World, calling Forel a "Savant" (i.e. Genius), and years later he tells Mary Maxwell and her mother that "Men are not created equal, and that is a fundamental principle of the Cause".
o Shoghi Effendi takes the ideas of Baha'u'llah and 'Abdu'l-Baha about a "International Tribunal" to settle disputes between independent and sovereign nations, and turns it into the "New World Order"--a Baha'i World State--controlled by a "World Executive" who controls a "world police force" that would rule the entire planet (scary!).
o Shoghi Effendi dies in 1957, without a Will (in violation of Baha'i law that says the Guardian must appoint a successor and leave a Will), but in 1954 he establishes an International Baha'i Council and makes Charles Mason Remey president.
o After the death of Shoghi Effendi in 1957, the Hands of the Cause of God (the 27 Baha'i Apostles) meet in Haifa, Israel. Mary Maxwell (Ruhiyyih Khanum) opens Shoghi's wall-safe (she is the only person alive to have the combination), and no Will is found. One of the Hands, Charles Mason Remey, asks her: "Why didn't Shoghi leave a Will?" Mary plays dumb by shruggin her shoulders. She tells the Hands that she and Shoghi "never discussed" the subject of who or what would succeed him after his death.
o Mary Maxwell (aka "Ruhiyyih Khanum") takes control of the Baha'i Faith at the death of her husband, forbidding anyone to enter her husband's study where the wall-safe is kept, and threateming to commit suicide if the Hands of the Cause (Baha'i apostles) do not agree with her that "God changed His mind" about the Guardianship being perpetual.
o Charles Mason Remey claims to be Second Guardian in 1961, based upon his appointment to the International Baha'i Council, and his "adoption" as a son by 'Abdu'l-Baha (who had no sons but only daughters); there are about 3,000 Orthodox Baha'is today.
o The nine-man "Universal House of Justice" is elected in 1963, as the governing body of the Faith worldwide; although Mary Maxwell (Ruhiyyih Khanum) must approve of all of their decisions and correspondence before it is sent out to the Baha'i World i.e. she acts as the de facto "Guardian" although her position as "Hand of the Cause" is inferior to that of "The House" (council of nine elected distinguished gentlemen).
o The House of Justice is the "governing body" of the Baha'i Faith worldwide, yet, Mary Maxwell has to read and approve all their decisions and communications before they are sent out to the Baha'i World, and she tells the House several times to "consult more until you get it right" on this or that issue. Mary (Ruhiyyih) is only a Hand of the Cause, but she is in reality the "Acting Guardian" of the Faith in all but name.
o The "House" continues to excommunicate any Baha'i scholar/translator who publishes "unauthorized translations" from the Central Figures or from the Seers (Shaykh Ahmad and Siyyid Kazim) or from Quddús or from the Companions of the Central Figures.
o Iranian Baha'is who move outside of Iran are told by the "House" to send them all Baha'i books in Farsi and Arabic published before 1970, and not to make copies of them (the "House" has not published any of these publications and refuses to say why they have not).
o The House is not always obeyed, and some of these books have gotten into the hands of Baha'i translators, some of whom have been excommunicated for "unauthorized" publishing.
In Part III will shall conclude The TRUTH About the Baha'i Faith and tell you a little more about The Friends of God International.